A rather rhetorical text espousing the author’s fairly conservative views on society, administration, and the responsibilities of officials. The first section, titled “The way of the official” (臣道), consists of moralistic commentaries and advice on official conduct and misconduct. The remaining six sections discuss the “Way of governance” (治道) according to the six traditional domains of government. Under each subdivision the author presents a series of commentaries, reflections, and anecdotes designed to illustrate his views of government. In keeping with Gangyi’s xenophobic reputation, a fairly anti-Western tone is noticeable at places.