The present entry gathers a number of printed and manuscript works of various scope and covering various time periods, bearing the same title (which is also used for appendixes to some nineteenth-century private eds. of the Penal Code) and more or less following the same format (also found in Qiushen shihuan bijiao cheng’an [q.v.] and other such compilations). The audience intended varies: whereas some mss. were clearly assembled by Ministry of Justice employees for their own use as reference material, others may be copies of these, or copies of printed versions; for their part, the printed versions were clearly aimed at the larger public of local officials or their muyou involved in preparing the dossiers sent to the ministry for the autumn assizes. A number of these works include Qiushen shihuan bijiao tiaokuan (q.v.) as an introductory juan; the regulations are then recalled at the beginning of each section where the relevant cases are listed. In the usual format, each entry (i.e., case) provides the province, year, and name of criminal at the beginning, followed by a brief summary of the circumstances, and the final decision (“confirmed,” “deferred,” etc.). With some exceptions, most of the cases date from the late Daoguang to early Guangxu periods. These collections combine to provide a fairly comprehensive coverage of the capital cases reviewed at the autumn assizes during the late Qing.