An explication of the Ming Penal Code comparable in structure to Ming lü jijie fuli (q.v.) and similar works. The front matter includes the Hongwu emperor’s pref. to the first ed. of the Ming Code, followed by the general mulu giving the titles of the parts and sections of the code, and by tables on the five punishments, instruments of punishment, degrees and rules of mourning, eight characters, six spoils, and redemption tariffs (the order may vary according to ed.), and detailed table of the Code (1549 ed.). There are more detailed mulu at the beginning of each part of the Code, giving a complete list of the sections and statutes therein (the parts on “General principles” and “Officials” have one consolidated mulu); these partial mulu are separately numbered as j. 1, j. 2, and so on. Contrary to most other works, only the statutes are quoted and commented upon, not the substatutes (條例). The explanations following the text of the law, which may be described as expansions in clearer and more explicit language, with a few author’s commentaries inserted, are introduced with the words shiyi yue 釋義曰. Other commentaries are only rarely quoted explicitly, but the author explains in his note that he did consult them (he speaks of “the shuyi, zhiyin and other such books” 疏義直引諸書—meaning presumably Lütiao shuyi and Da Ming lü zhiyin [qq.v.]), and added his own views. There are no punctuation marks but the layout of the titles, text, and commentaries is very clear.