|Figures of Deterrence in Late Imperial China. On the use of lingchi (death by a thousand cuts) as a State terror device powerpoint)||May 2012||Jérôme Bourgon with Zhao Hongyang (archives sieving) Julie Erismann (statistics, diagrams, maps)*|
Paper for the International Conference on HISTORY OF MASS VIOLENCE IN RUSSIA AND CHINA
|Lun Qingdai tiaoli zhong de diquxing tebie fa 论清代条例中的地区性特别法 (On the localism of special laws in the substatutes of the Qing code)||2000||Wang Zhiqiang 王志强||THIS ARTICLE IS NOT A "PROJECT OUTCOME", but one the initial inspiration of our programm, since it aims at locating the origins of the laws and at understanding how the Chinese Imperial legislation combined local pecularities with general enforcement|
Regional special laws were enacted by the central government but enforced in some particular regions. Based on the statistics of their quantity and distribution, the article studies the regional special laws in the sub-statutes of the Qing Dynasty, their emergence, contents and effect on the political system. The regional special sub-statutes, which focused on the felonies occurring near the capital and the frontier regions, were the results of the centraized monarchy and specified legislation system. Those sub-statutes that suited local conditions were effective in coordinating the central and local governments and maintaining public order, but were always disadvantageous due to some legislative problems.
|Qing lü "Guanggun li" zhi youlai ji qi lifa xiaci 清律「光棍例」之由來及其立法瑕疵 (The "Hoodlums" article in the Qing code, its origins and its legislative flaws)||2011||Su Yigong|
The crimes committed by guang gun, or hoodlums, was one of the social issues in both Ming and Qing dynasties. Ever since the Ming dynasty, there were already provisions on guang gun’s crimes in the legislation; though in the year of 1656，the Qing government formulated an ordinance in particular to punish the guang guns. This ordinance was the predecessor of the so called Guang Gun Li, or “the sub-statute for hoodlums”, which was modified many times until it reached its final form in Qianlong period(1736-95). The promulgation of Guang Gun Li not only enhanced the penalties for Guang Gun but also gave new legal meanings to the term Guang Gun, which created a new crime title – the Crime of Guang Gun. This article endeavored to trace to the origin of Guang Gun Li and its evolvement through textual research. The paper also attempted to evaluate and analyze the new crime title adopted in Qing dynasty towards guang guns from the angle of the legislative technology.
|The Title-deed tax in Qing China: fiscal and legal considerations||June 2012||Luca Gabbiani|
Communication presented at the 4th International Conference on Sinology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 20-22 June 2012
|The “Southern Great Wall of China” in Fenghuang County: Discovery and Restoration (a fieldwork report)||August 2012||Jiang Yonglin (Bryn Mawr College)|
In the English-speaking world, it is widely known that during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, China’s Ming dynasty (1368-1644) (Fig. 1) intensified its efforts to the construction of the Great Wall (“changcheng” 長城, aka “bianqiang” 邊牆 [frontier wall] in Chinese documents) along its northern frontiers, which handed down the legacy of the Great Wall of China. It is little known, however, that during the same time period the government of Huguang Province of the Ming also built a “frontier wall” (bianqiang 邊牆) along the “Miao territory” (Miaojiang 苗疆) in the southern part of the empire, especially at the present-day Fenghuang County鳳凰縣, Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture of Tujia Nationality and Miao Nationality 湘西土家族苗族自治州, Hunan Province (Figs. 2, 3). Compared to the world-renowned Great Wall in the north, the frontier wall in the south, or the “Southern Great Wall” (nan[fang] changcheng 南[方]長城) as promoted in China today, has attracted little scholarly attention in the English literature. Yet, the less impressive undertaking is no less significant in revealing the enduring process of identity building in China during both imperial times and the People’s Republic. In recent years, with the assistance of local residents, I visited the sites of the “Southern Great Wall” and a number of Miao communities along and outside the wall, including the areas in both Fenghuang in west Hunan and Songtao Autonomous County of Miao Nationality松桃苗族自治縣 in east Guizhou. It is my intension that this fieldwork report regarding the discovery and restoration of the frontier wall in Fenghuang County and its surrounding areas will bring a wider scholarly attention to this cultural site for a richer study of the identity building and cultural experience in this Miao community.